3 Fat Storing Hormones You Didn't Know About

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3 Fat Storing Hormones You Didn't Know About - Thomas DeLauer


Insulin is a fat storing hormone because it increases the major fat storing enzyme in the body called lipoprotein lipase (LPL)

It also decreases hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), the major fat burning enzyme

Aside from insulin, there are 2 other fat storing hormones:

Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP)

ASP is a hormone produced by adipocytes that’s produced through a process involving three proteins: C3, factor B and adipsin, which are secreted by adipocytes - it’s an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes

ASP has a primary role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes, where it stimulates glucose uptake, increases the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase activity

In cellular studies, ASP increases fat storage through increased triglyceride synthesis and decreased intracellular lipolysis

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

A hormone released from the small intestine that enhances the release of insulin following the intake of food.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is made and secreted mainly from the upper section of the small intestine from a specific type of cell known as the K cell

Its main action occurs in the pancreas where it targets beta cells, which produce insulin. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide stimulates the release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas in order to maintain low blood sugar levels after eating.

The main trigger for glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide release is food, in particular fatty foods or those foods that are rich in sugar.

Once released into the bloodstream, levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide do not remain high for very long. It is broken down quite quickly (after about seven minutes) and therefore does not remain in the circulating blood for long.

Fat vs Carb Storage

There’s a process in our body that makes gaining fat from carb consumption very difficult - that process is called De Novo Lipogenesis

A recent study on overfeeding via carbs looked at this:

Study - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

De novo lipogenesis was measured during 96 hours of overfeeding by 50% with either sucrose or glucose and during an energy balance treatment (control) in 8 lean and 5 obese women

De novo lipogenesis was 2- to 3-fold higher after overfeeding by 50% than after the control treatment in all subjects

The type of carb overfeeding (sucrose or glucose) had no significant effect on de novo lipogenesis in either subject group

They found that the carb-overfed women stored about 282 grams of body fat per day, but only 4 grams of it came from de novo lipogenesis

De novo lipogenesis accounted for only 1.4% of their fat gain

The 278 grams of fat per day that the women gained from dietary fat

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/74/6/737/4737416

Omega 3’s & Fat Gain

If you are eating excessive amounts of DHA or EPA, these fatty acids are more likely to be incorporated into phospholipid bilayers than adipose tissue

The abundance of EPA and DHA in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is low, typically less than 0.2 for EPA and up to 1.0 mol% for DHA

This suggests that EPA and DHA are not preferentially stored in adipose tissue triacylglycerol long-term, rather they may be partitioned to oxidation pathways or to storage in other lipid fractions, such as phospholipids; red blood cell and plasma phospholipids have a notably higher abundance of both EPA and DHA than adipose tissue

Function

After EPA and DHA are consumed through the diet, they are placed within a membrane phospholipid, where they can affect cellular function by promoting the fluidity, flexibility, and/or the permeability of a membrane

Omega 3’s & Fat Loss

A study of 44 people reported that those given 4 grams of fish oil per day failed to lose more weight than those given a placebo.

However, the fish oil group lost 1.1 more pounds (0.5 kg) of body fat and built 1.1 more pounds (0.5 kg) of muscle than those not given fish oil

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958879/

Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue

References

1) https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/74/6/737/4737416
2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730128/
3) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4646500/
4)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212877815000599
5) https://medium.com/@adamdpeeler/de-novo-lipogenesis-why-people-dont-get-fat-from-carbs-f989ceceb2ff
6) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26673120
7) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958879/
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