Stop Eating ANYTHING Between Meals - Snacking Danger

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Stop Eating ANYTHING Between Meals - Snacking Danger


Snacking - Insulin & Glucagon

Whenever you eat food, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood - as the nutrients are slowly absorbed into cells, insulin levels drop, until finally all the nutrients are absorbed, and insulin levels then remain steady at a low, “baseline” level

So when you're constantly eating, you're consistently releasing insulin, which puts your body into its "absorptive phase"

This means that the insulin in your body is storing sugar and not letting other enzymes in your body release sugar to break down fat

Glucagon

Insulin, the fat-storage and blocking hormone, has a counterpart known as glucagon – a fat-burning and unlocking hormone

About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon

This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose.

Glucagon signals the fat cells to release free fatty acids (a process called lipolysis), which signals the body to release stored fat to be used as fuel

Snacking & Digestion

Snacking can affect digestive function as it may increase risk for developing bacterial overgrowth

When bacteria replicate excessively in the small intestine, it results in a condition called Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

When the body is fasted, the muscles in the small intestine produce a periodic wave of forward motion called the migrating motor complex

The migrating motor complex is a distinct pattern of electromechanical activity observed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle during the periods between meals

It is thought to serve a "housekeeping" role and sweep residual undigested material through the digestive tube

The intestines need to be fasted for at least 90 minutes at a time in order for routine cleansing waves to occur

An increase in gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretion is also seen in conjunction with the motor activity.

These secretions aid in the cleansing activity of the migrating motor complex and assist in preventing a buildup of bacterial populations in the proximal segments of the digestive tube.

Study - 2 Meals vs 6 Meals per Day

Published in the journal Diabetologica, researchers found that eating 2 larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than 6 smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen (for patients with type 2 diabetes)

The study compared the effect of six (A6 regimen) vs two meals a day, breakfast and lunch (B2 regimen), on body weight, hepatic fat content (HFC), insulin resistance and beta cell function

Design

Researchers assigned 54 patients with type 2 diabetes, both men and women, age 30–70 years, to follow two regimens of a hypoenergetic diet (below normal, caloric restriction), A6 and B2, each for 12 weeks

The diet in both regimens had the same macronutrient and energy content

Results

Body weight decreased in both regimens, more for B2 (-5.07 lbs for A6 vs −8.1 lbs for B2)

HFC decreased in response to both regimens, more for B2 (−0.03% for A6 vs −0.04% for B2)

Fasting plasma glucose and C-peptide levels decreased in both regimens, more for B2

Fasting plasma glucagon decreased with the B2 regimen, whereas it increased for the A6 regimen

OGIS (oral glucose insulin sensitivity) increased in both regimens, more for B2 - No adverse events were observed for either regimen

Conclusion

Eating only breakfast and lunch reduced body weight, HFC, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide and glucagon, and increased OGIS, more than the same caloric restriction split into six meals

References

1) How Insulin Really Works: It Causes Fat Storage...But Doesn't Make You Fat | Muscle For Life. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.muscleforlife.com/how-insulin-works/
2) Understanding Our Bodies: Insulin | Nutrition Wonderland. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nutritionwonderland.com/2010/05/understanding-our-bodies-insulin/
3) Insulin and Glucagon: How Do They Work? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/insulin-and-glucagon#Workingtogether2
4) Unlock Glucagon: Your Body's Fat-Burning Hormone. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://healinggourmet.com/weight-loss-diet/unlock-glucagon-fat-burning-hormone/
5) The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174820
6) The Migrating Motor Complex. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/stomach/mmcomplex.html
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